The amnesty is the removal of criminal liability of
a crime. This legal action is usually carried out by the Legislative
Branch and affects various people who, previously, had been found
guilty of a violation of the law.
It is important to distinguish between amnesty and pardon. Pardon
is also a remedy that extinguishes criminal responsibility, but the perpetrator
of the crime is still considered guilty. That is, the pardon only forgives the
fulfillment of the sentence.
Instead, the amnesty is applied to the crime itself (the
crime is forgiven, not the penalty). This means that the amnesty achieves the
extinction of civil or criminal liability and erases the background. Amnesty
can also have retroactive consequences.
these characteristics of amnesty make this tool controversial. For many,
amnesty can go beyond forgiveness and become a path to impunity. Typically,
amnesty is enacted in instances of political or social change, implying the
forgiveness of crimes committed in a past regime.
Amnesty International (AI)
Amnesty International, on the other hand, is a
non-governmental organization that fights for the defense of human rights. The
British lawyer Peter Benenson (1921-2005) was the founder of
this NGO in 1961 and its fundamental objective is to advocate
for the rights of all humans, recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights signed by many nations in 1948, throughout from around the globe.
The headquarters of this institution is in London, the current Secretary
General is called Salil Shetty and there are more than 3 million
activists scattered in around 150 countries.
It was founded on October 1, 1962 with the purpose of publicizing those cases
of non-compliance with human rights and drawing attention to the abuses that are
committed daily throughout the world; They also carry out various campaigns to
enforce compliance with the international laws related to these rights.
It should be noted that it is one of the main organizations that pressures
governments and creates awareness among peoples in favor of freedom and the
legal consideration of all human existence.
Amnesty International's goals (which received the Nobel Peace Prize in
1977) include carrying out fair judicial processes, helping exiles, eliminating
torture, reporting disappearances and the freedom of prisoners. of conscience.
Some of AI's tasks are to secure the release and demand fair trials for
political prisoners (imprisoned for having used their freedom of
expression by publicly affirming their beliefs or thoughts), abolishing
all kinds of torture or punishment that denigrates prisoners, fight against the
systems that killings and disappearances use to gain respect, assist exiles and
abolish the death penalty and denounce conscientious killings and any similar
act that puts the life of another or other human beings at risk.
Through various investigations and legal action to fight abuses of any kind,
whether civil, political, social, economic or cultural, they demand justice for
those who have been victims.
With regard to human rights, it is one of the most prestigious international
organizations, whose work is real and which establishes the basis for the work
of all the other organizations that work in defense of human rights.